Opciones de mysqldump

Opciones de mysqldump.

En un anterior articulo ya vimos como crear y restaurar backups haciendo uso de mysqldump.

Hoy te presento el listado con su correspondiente explicación, de las opciones más comunes de mysqldump.

Estas son las opciones de mysqldump:

Opciones comunes de mysqldump
OpciónCortoDescripción
–add-drop-database Añade la sentencia ‘DROP DATABASE’ antes de cada sentencia ‘CREATE DATABASE’
–add-drop-table Añade la sentencia ‘DROP TABLE’ antes de cada sentencia ‘CREATE TABLE’
–all-databases-ARespalda todas las tablas de todas las bases de datos.
–comments-iAñade comentarios en el archivo de respaldo. Esta opción está por defecto activada, para desactivar los comentarios utiliza –skip-comments.
–compatible=nombre Produce una salida más compatible con otros sistemas de bases de datos o versiones anteriores de MySQL. nombre puede tomar estos valores: ansi, mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, mssql, oracle, db2, maxdb.
–complete-insert-cUsa sentencias INSERT completas que incluyen nombres de columnas.
–create-options Incluye todas las opciones específicas de MySQL para la creación de tablas que se usan con la sentencia ‘CREATE TABLE’.
–databases-BPermite respaldar una o más bases de datos. Después de la opción se indica(n) el(los) nombre(s) de la(s) base de datos a respaldar. Se respalda cada base de datos completa. En la salida se incluye con esta opción las sentencias ‘CREATE DATABASE’ y ‘USE’ antes de cada nueva base de datos.
–extended-insert-eUsa la sentencia ‘INSERT’ con el formato de múltiples registros con varias listas de ‘VALUES’. Esto produce una salida más reducida y acelera el proceso de INSERTS cuando el archivo es restaurado. Ideal para bases de datos con tablas que contienen miles de registros.
–force-fSi se tienen views o vistas en la base de datos a respaldar y la vista hace referencia a una tabla que ya no existe, el vaciado del respaldo terminará con un error sin completarse. Con esta opción se podrá continuar.
–host=nombre-h nomSe realiza el respaldo de el servidor MySQL indicado por nombre, puede ser una dirección IP o un nombre de servidor válido. Si no se especifica el default es localhost.
–ignore-table=bd.tabla Si no se desea respaldar una tabla en específico se utiliza esta opción, es obligario indicar la base de datos un punto y después nombre de la tabla. Si son varias tablas las que se han de ignorar se usa esta opción múltiples veces. También puede usarse para ignorar vistas.
–master-dataSi el respaldo viene de un servidor MySQL que actua como maestro en una esquema de replicación, el uso de esta opción es muy importante ya que incluira sentencias del tipo “CHANGE MASTER TO” que indican la posición en los archivos de bitácora binarios necesarios para que los servidores esclavos se sincronicen adecuadamente.
–no-create-db-nEsta opción suprime las sentencias “CREATE DATABASE” que por defecto se incluyen en el respaldo.
–no-data-dNo escribe o respalda registro alguno solo el esquema de la base de datos.
–opt Esta opción esta por defecto activada, produce un vaciado rápido y totalmente compatible con otros servidores MySQL. Es un alias que activa las opciones –add-drop-table–create-options–extended-insert, entre otras.
–password[=pass]-p[pass]La contraseña para conectarse al servidor indicado en la opción –host. Si usas la opción corta p no debe haber un espacio. Es posible no indicar la contraseña y después de presionar la tecla intro se preguntará por esta.
–port=num-P numSi servidor indicado en la opción –host utiliza un puerto diferente al default del servicio mysql (3306) debe de indicarse con esta opción.
–quick-qVa de la mano con la opción –single-transaction ya que aplica principalmente para tablas grandes y del tipo transaccional. Permite agilizar la escritura al archivo de respaldo al leer registro por registro sin mandarlo a un buffer previo.
–quote-names-QOpción por defecto activada. Pone entre comilla grave “" a los nombres de los objetos como base de datos, tablas, columnas. Es recomendable dejarla siempre para evitar problemas de compatibilidad, pero si se desea desactivar utiliza la opción --skip-quote-names
--routines-RIncluye en el respaldo rutinas almacenadas (procedimientos y funciones). Con esta función se incluyen las sentencias "CREATE PROCEDURE" Y "CREATE FUNCTION" que permiten re-crear completamente procedimientos almacenados y funciones. Esta opción NO esta por defecto en  mysqldump asi que es motivo de sorpresa para DBA's nuevos enterarse que el respaldo en el que tanto confiaban no está completo al momento de necesitarlo, sino utilizaron esta opción.
--single-transaction Opción útil solo con tablas transaccionales como las del tipo InnoDB, ya que garantiza la integridad y la consistencia sin bloquear las tablas. Esto lo logra al emitir una sentencia "START TRANSACTION" antes de vaciar los datos al respaldo.
--skip-opt Desactiva la opción por defecto --opt, con lo que se tienen que indicar individualmente las opciones a las que --opt hace referencia.
--triggers Incluye triggers creados en el respaldo. Esta opción es automática, esta por defecto, sino se quiere utilizar el respaldo de triggers utiliza --skip-triggers
--user=nombre-u nomEl nombre de usuario de MySQL para conectarse al servidor indicado en la opción --host.
--verbose-vModo verboso. Imprime información de lo que está haciendo el respaldo, usa doble -v -vpara modo aun más verboso.
--xml-XEn vez de un respaldo por defecto formateado con sentencias SQL, esta opción ofrece una salida en un formato XML bien formado.

 

Si quieres verlas todas (incluyendo las variables), puedes revisar la ayuda que tiene incluida "mysqldump".

Salida completa:

mysqldump Ver 10.16 Distrib 10.2.15-MariaDB, for Linux (x86_64)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Dumping structure and contents of MySQL databases and tables.
Usage: mysqldump [OPTIONS] database [tables]
OR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --databases [OPTIONS] DB1 [DB2 DB3...]
OR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --all-databases [OPTIONS]

Default options are read from the following files in the given order:
/etc/my.cnf ~/.my.cnf
The following groups are read: mysqldump client client-server client-mariadb
The following options may be given as the first argument:
--print-defaults Print the program argument list and exit.
--no-defaults Don't read default options from any option file.
The following specify which files/extra groups are read (specified before remaining options):
--defaults-file=# Only read default options from the given file #.
--defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read.
--defaults-group-suffix=# Additionally read default groups with # appended as a suffix.

-A, --all-databases Dump all the databases. This will be same as --databases
with all databases selected.
-Y, --all-tablespaces
Dump all the tablespaces.
-y, --no-tablespaces
Do not dump any tablespace information.
--add-drop-database Add a DROP DATABASE before each create.
--add-drop-table Add a DROP TABLE before each create.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-add-drop-table to disable.)
--add-drop-trigger Add a DROP TRIGGER before each create.
--add-locks Add locks around INSERT statements.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-add-locks to disable.)
--allow-keywords Allow creation of column names that are keywords.
--apply-slave-statements
Adds 'STOP SLAVE' prior to 'CHANGE MASTER' and 'START
SLAVE' to bottom of dump.
--character-sets-dir=name
Directory for character set files.
-i, --comments Write additional information.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-comments to disable.)
--compatible=name Change the dump to be compatible with a given mode. By
default tables are dumped in a format optimized for
MySQL. Legal modes are: ansi, mysql323, mysql40,
postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb, no_key_options,
no_table_options, no_field_options. One can use several
modes separated by commas. Note: Requires MySQL server
version 4.1.0 or higher. This option is ignored with
earlier server versions.
--compact Give less verbose output (useful for debugging). Disables
structure comments and header/footer constructs. Enables
options --skip-add-drop-table --skip-add-locks
--skip-comments --skip-disable-keys --skip-set-charset.
-c, --complete-insert
Use complete insert statements.
-C, --compress Use compression in server/client protocol.
-a, --create-options
Include all MySQL specific create options.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-create-options to disable.)
-B, --databases Dump several databases. Note the difference in usage; in
this case no tables are given. All name arguments are
regarded as database names. 'USE db_name;' will be
included in the output.
-#, --debug[=#] This is a non-debug version. Catch this and exit.
--debug-check Check memory and open file usage at exit.
--debug-info Print some debug info at exit.
--default-character-set=name
Set the default character set.
--delayed-insert Insert rows with INSERT DELAYED.
--delete-master-logs
Delete logs on master after backup. This automatically
enables --master-data.
-K, --disable-keys '/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name DISABLE KEYS */; and
'/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name ENABLE KEYS */; will be put
in the output.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-disable-keys to disable.)
--dump-slave[=#] This causes the binary log position and filename of the
master to be appended to the dumped data output. Setting
the value to 1, will printit as a CHANGE MASTER command
in the dumped data output; if equal to 2, that command
will be prefixed with a comment symbol. This option will
turn --lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is
specified too (in which case a global read lock is only
taken a short time at the beginning of the dump - don't
forget to read about --single-transaction below). In all
cases any action on logs will happen at the exact moment
of the dump.Option automatically turns --lock-tables off.
-E, --events Dump events.
-e, --extended-insert
Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several
VALUES lists.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-extended-insert to disable.)
--fields-terminated-by=name
Fields in the output file are terminated by the given
string.
--fields-enclosed-by=name
Fields in the output file are enclosed by the given
character.
--fields-optionally-enclosed-by=name
Fields in the output file are optionally enclosed by the
given character.
--fields-escaped-by=name
Fields in the output file are escaped by the given
character.
-F, --flush-logs Flush logs file in server before starting dump. Note that
if you dump many databases at once (using the option
--databases= or --all-databases), the logs will be
flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when
using --lock-all-tables or --master-data: in this case
the logs will be flushed only once, corresponding to the
moment all tables are locked. So if you want your dump
and the log flush to happen at the same exact moment you
should use --lock-all-tables or --master-data with
--flush-logs.
--flush-privileges Emit a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement after dumping the mysql
database. This option should be used any time the dump
contains the mysql database and any other database that
depends on the data in the mysql database for proper
restore.
-f, --force Continue even if we get an SQL error.
--gtid Used together with --master-data=1 or --dump-slave=1.When
enabled, the output from those options will set the GTID
position instead of the binlog file and offset; the
file/offset will appear only as a comment. When disabled,
the GTID position will still appear in the output, but
only commented.
-?, --help Display this help message and exit.
--hex-blob Dump binary strings (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB) in
hexadecimal format.
-h, --host=name Connect to host.
--ignore-table=name Do not dump the specified table. To specify more than one
table to ignore, use the directive multiple times, once
for each table. Each table must be specified with both
database and table names, e.g.,
--ignore-table=database.table.
--include-master-host-port
Adds 'MASTER_HOST=<host>, MASTER_PORT=<port>' to 'CHANGE
MASTER TO..' in dump produced with --dump-slave.
--insert-ignore Insert rows with INSERT IGNORE.
--lines-terminated-by=name
Lines in the output file are terminated by the given
string.
-x, --lock-all-tables
Locks all tables across all databases. This is achieved
by taking a global read lock for the duration of the
whole dump. Automatically turns --single-transaction and
--lock-tables off.
-l, --lock-tables Lock all tables for read.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-lock-tables to disable.)
--log-error=name Append warnings and errors to given file.
--log-queries When restoring the dump, the server will, if logging
turned on, log the queries to the general and slow query
log.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-log-queries to disable.)
--master-data[=#] This causes the binary log position and filename to be
appended to the output. If equal to 1, will print it as a
CHANGE MASTER command; if equal to 2, that command will
be prefixed with a comment symbol. This option will turn
--lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is
specified too (on servers before MariaDB 5.3 this will
still take a global read lock for a short time at the
beginning of the dump; don't forget to read about
--single-transaction below). In all cases, any action on
logs will happen at the exact moment of the dump. Option
automatically turns --lock-tables off.
--max-allowed-packet=#
The maximum packet length to send to or receive from
server.
--net-buffer-length=#
The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication.
--no-autocommit Wrap tables with autocommit/commit statements.
-n, --no-create-db Suppress the CREATE DATABASE ... IF EXISTS statement that
normally is output for each dumped database if
--all-databases or --databases is given.
-t, --no-create-info
Don't write table creation info.
-d, --no-data No row information.
--no-data-med No row information for engines that Manage External Data
(MRG_MyISAM, MRG_ISAM, CONNECT, OQGRAPH, SPIDER, VP,
FEDERATED).
(Defaults to on; use --skip-no-data-med to disable.)
-N, --no-set-names Same as --skip-set-charset.
--opt Same as --add-drop-table, --add-locks, --create-options,
--quick, --extended-insert, --lock-tables, --set-charset,
and --disable-keys. Enabled by default, disable with
--skip-opt.
--order-by-primary Sorts each table's rows by primary key, or first unique
key, if such a key exists. Useful when dumping a MyISAM
table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but will make
the dump itself take considerably longer.
-p, --password[=name]
Password to use when connecting to server. If password is
not given it's solicited on the tty.
-P, --port=# Port number to use for connection.
--protocol=name The protocol to use for connection (tcp, socket, pipe,
memory).
-q, --quick Don't buffer query, dump directly to stdout.
(Defaults to on; use --skip-quick to disable.)
-Q, --quote-names Quote table and column names with backticks ().
(Defaults to on; use –skip-quote-names to disable.)
–replace Use REPLACE INTO instead of INSERT INTO.
-r, –result-file=name
Direct output to a given file. This option should be used
in systems (e.g., DOS, Windows) that use carriage-return
linefeed pairs (\r\n) to separate text lines. This option
ensures that only a single newline is used.
-R, –routines Dump stored routines (functions and procedures).
–set-charset Add ‘SET NAMES default_character_set’ to the output.
(Defaults to on; use –skip-set-charset to disable.)
–single-transaction
Creates a consistent snapshot by dumping all tables in a
single transaction. Works ONLY for tables stored in
storage engines which support multiversioning (currently
only InnoDB does); the dump is NOT guaranteed to be
consistent for other storage engines. While a
–single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a
valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log
position), no other connection should use the following
statements: ALTER TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE,
TRUNCATE TABLE, as consistent snapshot is not isolated
from them. Option automatically turns off –lock-tables.
–dump-date Put a dump date to the end of the output.
(Defaults to on; use –skip-dump-date to disable.)
–skip-opt Disable –opt. Disables –add-drop-table, –add-locks,
–create-options, –quick, –extended-insert,
–lock-tables, –set-charset, and –disable-keys.
-S, –socket=name The socket file to use for connection.
–ssl Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with
other flags).
–ssl-ca=name CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies
–ssl).
–ssl-capath=name CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies –ssl).
–ssl-cert=name X509 cert in PEM format (implies –ssl).
–ssl-cipher=name SSL cipher to use (implies –ssl).
–ssl-key=name X509 key in PEM format (implies –ssl).
–ssl-crl=name Certificate revocation list (implies –ssl).
–ssl-crlpath=name Certificate revocation list path (implies –ssl).
–ssl-verify-server-cert
Verify server’s “Common Name” in its cert against
hostname used when connecting. This option is disabled by
default.
-T, –tab=name Create tab-separated textfile for each table to given
path. (Create .sql and .txt files.) NOTE: This only works
if mysqldump is run on the same machine as the mysqld
server.
–tables Overrides option –databases (-B).
–triggers Dump triggers for each dumped table.
(Defaults to on; use –skip-triggers to disable.)
–tz-utc SET TIME_ZONE=’+00:00′ at top of dump to allow dumping of
TIMESTAMP data when a server has data in different time
zones or data is being moved between servers with
different time zones.
(Defaults to on; use –skip-tz-utc to disable.)
-u, –user=name User for login if not current user.
-v, –verbose Print info about the various stages.
-V, –version Output version information and exit.
-w, –where=name Dump only selected records. Quotes are mandatory.
-X, –xml Dump a database as well formed XML.
–plugin-dir=name Directory for client-side plugins.
–default-auth=name Default authentication client-side plugin to use.

Variables (–variable-name=value)
and boolean options {FALSE|TRUE} Value (after reading options)
——————————— —————————————-
all-databases FALSE
all-tablespaces FALSE
no-tablespaces FALSE
add-drop-database FALSE
add-drop-table TRUE
add-drop-trigger FALSE
add-locks TRUE
allow-keywords FALSE
apply-slave-statements FALSE
character-sets-dir (No default value)
comments TRUE
compatible (No default value)
compact FALSE
complete-insert FALSE
compress FALSE
create-options TRUE
databases FALSE
debug-check FALSE
debug-info FALSE
default-character-set utf8
delayed-insert FALSE
delete-master-logs FALSE
disable-keys TRUE
dump-slave 0
events FALSE
extended-insert TRUE
fields-terminated-by (No default value)
fields-enclosed-by (No default value)
fields-optionally-enclosed-by (No default value)
fields-escaped-by (No default value)
flush-logs FALSE
flush-privileges FALSE
force FALSE
gtid FALSE
hex-blob FALSE
host (No default value)
include-master-host-port FALSE
insert-ignore FALSE
lines-terminated-by (No default value)
lock-all-tables FALSE
lock-tables TRUE
log-error (No default value)
log-queries TRUE
master-data 0
max-allowed-packet 25165824
net-buffer-length 1046528
no-autocommit FALSE
no-create-db FALSE
no-create-info FALSE
no-data FALSE
no-data-med TRUE
order-by-primary FALSE
port 0
quick TRUE
quote-names TRUE
replace FALSE
routines FALSE
set-charset TRUE
single-transaction FALSE
dump-date TRUE
socket (No default value)
ssl FALSE
ssl-ca (No default value)
ssl-capath (No default value)
ssl-cert (No default value)
ssl-cipher (No default value)
ssl-key (No default value)
ssl-crl (No default value)
ssl-crlpath (No default value)
ssl-verify-server-cert FALSE
tab (No default value)
triggers TRUE
tz-utc TRUE
user (No default value)
verbose FALSE
where (No default value)
plugin-dir (No default value)
default-auth (No default value)

 

Opciones de mysqldump
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